Women’s fight for equality is not a new phenomenon in Afghan history and women’s struggle for maintaining their rights is going back as far as 1919 but women didn’t gain the legal guarantee for their rights till 1923, when both men and women were entitled to equal rights in the constitution, which was re-initiated in the 1964 and 2004 constitutions. From the 1960s until the 1980s women served as ministers, members of the parliament and in other key positions of the Afghan government. In addition women were part of the fight against monarchy and part of the political struggle to topple the king in the early 1970s. This progress happened largely in big cities such as Kabul, Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad and Mazar-e-Sharif and mainly among progressive families where girls were allowed to seek higher education and were able to attend university whereas the women and girls in rural parts of Afghanistan didn’t have this privilege.
While the civil war and the Taliban era from (1992 - 2001) brought a severe setback for many Afghan women in terms of their deprivation of their basic rights and freedoms including the right to education, health, freedom of movement and freedom of choice. Taliban as an oppressive regime started implementing a harsh form of sharia by imposing a ban on women’s movement, closing girls’ schools and discouraging women from participating in any form of social life. Despite such oppression women’s rights’ activists started underground schooling for girls and continued to educate girls undercover in home run schools. If detected, they were severely punishable under the rule of Taliban.