Agriculture is one of the oldest sectors and the pillar of Ghana’s economy. The agricultural sector immensely contributes to the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), foreign exchange earnings, and absorbs a substantial proportion of its labour. In 2015, the estimated contribution of the agriculture sector to Ghana’s GDP was a little over 20 percent, a fall from the 30 percent mark at the beginning of the third millennium (GSS, 2013; MoFA, 2016). The sector generates about 75 percent of the country’s export earnings and employs about 70 percent of its workforce (GSS, 2013). It is for these reasons that Ghana’s economy may still be considered agrarian.
Situation of women in agriculture
Ghanaian women’s contribution to the agriculture sector is enormous. They constitute an estimated 52 percent of agricultural labour force, 70 percent of food producers and 95 percent of agro-processors (World Bank, 2008). These contributions not-withstanding, women in agriculture are overwhelmed by many problems, including gendered social norms and expectations, lower access to production resources such as land, fertilizers, mechanisation, labour, human capital, technology and credit. The patriarchal structures governing agricultural productions have been cited as one major source of women’s disadvantaged situation, rendering women in agriculture vulnerable and often placing them among the working poor.